Anoa – Report Text
Anoa (Bubalus sp.) Are the largest and endemic mammals that live on the mainland of Sulawesi Island and Buton Island. Many call anoa a dwarf buffalo. Anoa are animals that are classified as intermediate fauna. Anoa is a mammal belonging to the bovidae family which is spread almost all over the island of Sulawesi. The Wallacea region consists of the islands of Sulawesi, Maluku, Halmahera, Flores Islands, and small islands in Nusa Tenggara. This region is unique because it has many endemic flora and fauna and is a transitional area between the continents of Asia and Australia. One area that has endemic flora and fauna of Sulawesi is the Poso area. Anoa (Bubalus sp.) Is one of the protected endemic animals that characterizes the island of Sulawesi which also inhabits the Protected Forest Area of Sangginora Village, Poso Regency . Anoa is classified as a rare and protected wildlife Act in Indonesia since 1931 and is emphasized by Law No. 5 of 1990 and Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999.
There are two species of Anoa, namely: Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Both of these species live in forests that are not touched by humans. Both are also included as an aggressive species and difficult to tame as livestock (domestication). Both types are distinguished by the shape of the horn and the size of the body. Lowland Anoa are relatively smaller, tails are shorter and softer, and have a circular horn. While the mountain Anoa is larger, has a long tail, white legs, and has a rough horn with a triangle section.
Internationally, these animals are very important animals for conservation activities, in an area known as “Wallacea bioregion” (Conservation International). Until now Anoa conservation has focused on protecting forest areas and captivity. An obstacle to the conservation of anoa is the uncertainty of the taxonomic status and structure of its population on the island of Sulawesi. From 1986 to 2007, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) included anoa as endangered species.  Anoa population is estimated to be less than 2,500 adult individuals with an estimated rate of decline in the population in the last 14-18 years reaching 20%. Based on anoa distribution map coupled with the fact of its current population in nature, the distribution of anoa in Sulawesi, especially in the north, tends to experience a decline in population at a slightly faster rate compared to other regions in Sulawesi. This is proven in several conservation areas in North Sulawesi such as the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve (CA), CA. Mount Ambang and CA. Manembo-nembo, anoa have been declared locally extinct. In the last five years the Anoa population has declined dramatically. It is estimated that currently there are less than 5000 tails that still survive. Anoa are often hunted for their skin, horns and flesh.