Bridge – Artikel Bahasa Inggris
Bridges are structures that are made to cross ravines or obstacles such as rivers, railroads or highways. Bridges are built for pedestrian crossings, vehicles or trains over obstacles. Bridges are also part of the land transportation infrastructure which is vital in traffic flows. Bridges are often a critical component of a road section, because as a determinant of the maximum load of vehicles that pass through these roads.
The first bridge made with a wooden walkway to cross the river. There are also people who use two pieces of rope or rattan, which are tied to the rocks on the river bank. So on, the stone is used, but only as a frame. The first curved shaped bridge bridge was made during the time of the Roman Emperor, and there are still many bridges and aqueducts that the Romans know today. The Romans also had knowledge, which reduced the different strengths of the stones. Brick and mortar bridges were made during the time of the Roman emperor, because after that time, knowledge technology was lost. In the Middle Ages, the stone bridge pillars were usually larger, causing difficulties for ships passing on the river.
In the 18th century, many reforms began in the construction of wooden bridges by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann and others. With the arrival of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems used iron to advance for the construction of larger bridges, but iron did not have sufficient tensile strength for large loads. If you have high tension strength, a bigger bridge will be made, mostly using the idea of Gustave Eiffel, which was first shown at the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. Which is suitable for use in making long bridges because it has high strength-to-weight, but also has concrete guarding costs cheaper. So, always “reinforced concrete” (reinforced concrete) is used – weak concrete tension strength is filled by copper wires embedded in the concrete.
Tower of Pisa – Descriptive Text
Tower of Pisa
Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa or abbreviated as Torre di Pisa), or better known as the Tower of Pisa, is a campanile or cathedral bell tower in the city of Pisa, Italy.
The Pisa Tower was actually made to stand vertically like a bell tower in general, but began to tilt shortly after construction began in August 1173. It is located behind the cathedral and is the third building of the Campo dei Miracoli (rainbow field) of the city of Pisa.
The height of this tower is 55.86 m from the lowest ground level and 56.70 m from the highest ground level. The width of the wall below reaches 4.09 m and the peak is 2.48 m. Its weight is estimated at 14,500 tons. The Tower of Pisa has 294 steps. With the existence of this tower, the economic income sector will increase because of the attractions.
The Tower of Pisa is also accepted as one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
The construction of the Tower of Pisa was carried out in three stages over a period of 200 years. The construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on August 9, 1173, which was an era of military prosperity and glory. The first floor is surrounded by pillars with classic letters, which tilt toward the arch of the blinds. Actually, the Leaning Tower was supposed to stand as tall as 55 meters, but because the Leaning Tower of Pisa was built on unstable land, the Tower finally tilted from a straight line of 5 meters.
There is controversy regarding the identity of the Leaning Tower of Pisa architect. For several years the designer was predicated to a prominent 12th-century local artist in Pisa, who was popular by his bronze molds, especially in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 to go to Monreale, Sicily, only to return home and die in his hometown. His sarcophagus was found at the base of the tower in 1820.
Anoa – Report Text
Anoa (Bubalus sp.) Are the largest and endemic mammals that live on the mainland of Sulawesi Island and Buton Island. Many call anoa a dwarf buffalo. Anoa are animals that are classified as intermediate fauna. Anoa is a mammal belonging to the bovidae family which is spread almost all over the island of Sulawesi. The Wallacea region consists of the islands of Sulawesi, Maluku, Halmahera, Flores Islands, and small islands in Nusa Tenggara. This region is unique because it has many endemic flora and fauna and is a transitional area between the continents of Asia and Australia. One area that has endemic flora and fauna of Sulawesi is the Poso area. Anoa (Bubalus sp.) Is one of the protected endemic animals that characterizes the island of Sulawesi which also inhabits the Protected Forest Area of Sangginora Village, Poso Regency . Anoa is classified as a rare and protected wildlife Act in Indonesia since 1931 and is emphasized by Law No. 5 of 1990 and Government Regulation No. 7 of 1999.
There are two species of Anoa, namely: Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). Both of these species live in forests that are not touched by humans. Both are also included as an aggressive species and difficult to tame as livestock (domestication). Both types are distinguished by the shape of the horn and the size of the body. Lowland Anoa are relatively smaller, tails are shorter and softer, and have a circular horn. While the mountain Anoa is larger, has a long tail, white legs, and has a rough horn with a triangle section.
Internationally, these animals are very important animals for conservation activities, in an area known as “Wallacea bioregion” (Conservation International). Until now Anoa conservation has focused on protecting forest areas and captivity. An obstacle to the conservation of anoa is the uncertainty of the taxonomic status and structure of its population on the island of Sulawesi. From 1986 to 2007, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) included anoa as endangered species.  Anoa population is estimated to be less than 2,500 adult individuals with an estimated rate of decline in the population in the last 14-18 years reaching 20%. Based on anoa distribution map coupled with the fact of its current population in nature, the distribution of anoa in Sulawesi, especially in the north, tends to experience a decline in population at a slightly faster rate compared to other regions in Sulawesi. This is proven in several conservation areas in North Sulawesi such as the Tangkoko Batuangus Nature Reserve (CA), CA. Mount Ambang and CA. Manembo-nembo, anoa have been declared locally extinct. In the last five years the Anoa population has declined dramatically. It is estimated that currently there are less than 5000 tails that still survive. Anoa are often hunted for their skin, horns and flesh.
Komodo dragon – Descriptive Text
Komodo dragons, or also called Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis), are large lizard species found on Komodo Island, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Gili Dasami in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. This monitor lizard by the indigenous people of the island of Komodo is also referred to by the local name Ora.
Komodo is the largest species of the family Varanidae, as well as the largest lizard in the world, with an average length of 2-3 meters and weighs up to 100 kg. The Komodo dragon is the top predator in its habitat because so far there are no known large carnivorous animals other than monitor lizards in any of its geographies.
Their large bodies and terrible reputation make them one of the most famous animals in the world. Now, the actual habitat of the Komodo dragon has dwindled due to human activities, so the IUCN institution includes the Komodo dragon as a species that is vulnerable to extinction. Komodo dragons have been designated as animals that are protected by the Indonesian government and their habit is turned into a national park, the Komodo National Park, whose purpose was established to protect them.
Young Komodo dragons on Rinca that eat buffalo carcasses.
Komodo dragons can see as far as 300 m, but because the retina only has cone cells, these animals cannot see well in the darkness of the night. Komodo dragons are able to distinguish colors but are not so able to distinguish immovable objects. Komodo does not have the sense of hearing, although it has ear holes.
The Komodo dragon uses its tongue to smell its prey as much as most Squamata. The tongue of the Komodo dragon catches the odor particles in the air and then puts it into an organ in the roof of its mouth called the Jacobson’s organ which functions to analyze the signs of the odor. With the help of the wind and its habit of turning its head to the right and left when walking, the Komodo dragon can detect the presence of carcasses as far as 4-9.5 km. The nostrils of the Komodo dragon only serve to breathe and not smell because the Komodo dragon does not have a receptive membrane on its nose. Komodo also does not have a taste organ on the tongue, there are only a few nerve endings taste in the deep throat.
Lion – Descriptive Text
Lion – Descriptive Text
fifa-brazil-2014.com – Lions (Sanskrit: Siṃha, or in Latin: Panthera leo) are animal species from the felidae family or type of cat. Lions are animals that live in groups. Usually consists of one male and many females. This group is guarding its territory. The lion is between 10 and 15 years in the wild, but captivity allows more than 20 years.
The lioness is much more active in hunting, while the male lion is more relaxed to wait and ask for rations from the hunted females. Male lions are believed to be superior and mighty compared to other large cats, but the lion’s weakness is that it cannot climb trees as good as other large cats. The male lion is covered with thick fur around the nape of his neck, this is more beneficial to protect the nape of his neck, especially in free fights between large cats who tend to pounce on the nape to paralyze their enemies.
Other large cats, such as the cheetahs and leopards, are much smaller than a lion. Although they are from the same family as tigers, lions do not like water. In contrast to tigers who like water.
The lion is its habitat in the desert. These animals are classified as noctural, in a day 20 hours lying on rocks or under a shady tree. Each group consists of 1-6 males, 4-15 females. The territory of a group is between 20-400 km2. If the food runs out, the lioness looks for food for a whole day while expanding its territory. The task of the male lion is to protect the female from the other group’s male lion, and guard the territory. When seizing another group’s territory, a male who seizes another group will kill the lion cub that is in the group that was seized. The running speed of the male lion is 58 km / hour.
The food is meat, usually prey on large mammals that weigh around 50-500 kg. In addition, lions also prey on small mammals such as birds, reptiles, and insects. Lions usually hunt at night, but if in long grass that can cover the body can hunt during the day. Typically, female lions that hunt and hunt are monopolized by male lions.