Bridges are structures that are made to cross ravines or obstacles such as rivers, railroads or highways. Bridges are built for pedestrian crossings, vehicles or trains over obstacles. Bridges are also part of the land transportation infrastructure which is vital in traffic flows. Bridges are often a critical component of a road section, because as a determinant of the maximum load of vehicles that pass through these roads.
The first bridge made with a wooden walkway to cross the river. There are also people who use two pieces of rope or rattan, which are tied to the rocks on the river bank. So on, the stone is used, but only as a frame. The first curved shaped bridge bridge was made during the time of the Roman Emperor, and there are still many bridges and aqueducts that the Romans know today. The Romans also had knowledge, which reduced the different strengths of the stones. Brick and mortar bridges were made during the time of the Roman emperor, because after that time, knowledge technology was lost. In the Middle Ages, the stone bridge pillars were usually larger, causing difficulties for ships passing on the river.
In the 18th century, many reforms began in the construction of wooden bridges by Hans Ulrich, Johannes Grubenmann and others. With the arrival of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems used iron to advance for the construction of larger bridges, but iron did not have sufficient tensile strength for large loads. If you have high tension strength, a bigger bridge will be made, mostly using the idea of Gustave Eiffel, which was first shown at the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. Which is suitable for use in making long bridges because it has high strength-to-weight, but also has concrete guarding costs cheaper. So, always “reinforced concrete” (reinforced concrete) is used – weak concrete tension strength is filled by copper wires embedded in the concrete.